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Information about Iran
Information about Iran

Information About Iran

This article provides essential information about Iran, including its history, culture, geography, economy, and political system.

Iran, officially known as the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country located in Western Asia. It has a rich and ancient history that dates back thousands of years. From the ancient civilizations of the Persian Empire to the modern-day events, such as the Islamic Revolution, Iran has played a significant role in shaping the world.

The cultural heritage of Iran is diverse and has influenced the world for centuries. Iranian art, literature, music, and traditions are renowned for their beauty and intricacy. Persian carpets, calligraphy, and poetry are just a few examples of the artistic contributions that have captivated people around the globe.

Geographically, Iran is a country of contrasts. It is home to majestic mountains, vast deserts, and picturesque coastlines along the Caspian Sea and the Persian Gulf. Mount Damavand, the highest peak in Iran, attracts hikers and mountaineering enthusiasts from all over the world. The ancient city of Persepolis, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, stands as a testament to the grandeur of the Achaemenid Empire.

The economy of Iran is diverse, with major industries including oil, gas, agriculture, and manufacturing. Iran possesses significant oil reserves, making it an important player in the global energy market. However, international sanctions have had a significant impact on Iran's economic development.

The political system of Iran is unique, with a structure that combines elements of theocracy and democracy. The Supreme Leader holds ultimate authority and plays a crucial role in shaping the country's policies and decision-making processes. The government and religious authorities have a complex relationship, with Islamic principles influencing governance.

In conclusion, Iran is a country with a rich history, diverse culture, stunning geography, and a unique political system. Understanding these aspects is essential to gaining a comprehensive view of this fascinating nation.

History of Iran

The history of Iran is a fascinating journey through time, encompassing ancient civilizations, powerful empires, and significant events that have shaped the country's identity. One of the most notable periods in Iran's history is the Persian Empire, which flourished from the 6th century BC to the 4th century BC. Under the leadership of powerful rulers such as Cyrus the Great and Darius the Great, the Persian Empire expanded its territories and established itself as a major world power. The empire was known for its advanced administration, impressive architecture, and cultural achievements.

Throughout its history, Iran has experienced various invasions and conquests by different empires and dynasties. The Arab conquest in the 7th century AD brought Islam to Iran and marked the beginning of the Islamic period. Despite the influence of Arab culture and religion, Iran managed to preserve its unique Persian identity and continued to contribute to the development of art, science, and literature.

In more recent history, Iran witnessed the Islamic Revolution in 1979, which resulted in the establishment of an Islamic republic and the overthrow of the monarchy. This revolution brought significant changes to Iran's political and social landscape, as well as its relationship with the international community. The revolution was led by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, who became the Supreme Leader of Iran and played a pivotal role in shaping the country's policies and direction.

Today, Iran continues to be a country with a rich history and a vibrant culture. Its historical sites, such as the ancient city of Persepolis, attract tourists from around the world, offering a glimpse into the grandeur of the Achaemenid Empire. The history of Iran is a testament to the resilience and endurance of its people, who have faced numerous challenges throughout the centuries and have emerged with a strong sense of national pride and identity.

Cultural Heritage of Iran

The cultural heritage of Iran is a treasure trove of art, literature, music, and traditions that have captivated the world for centuries. From ancient times to the present day, Iran has been a hub of creativity and innovation, leaving a lasting impact on global culture.

Iranian art is renowned for its intricate designs and vibrant colors. Persian carpets, with their exquisite patterns and craftsmanship, are coveted around the world. The art of calligraphy, which has been perfected over centuries, is also an integral part of Iran's cultural heritage. The elegant curves and flowing lines of Persian calligraphy can be seen in mosques, manuscripts, and decorative arts.

Literature holds a special place in Iranian culture. Persian poetry, particularly the works of renowned poets such as Rumi and Hafez, has inspired countless generations with its profound wisdom and beauty. Persian literature is rich in symbolism and metaphor, exploring themes of love, spirituality, and the human condition.

The music of Iran is as diverse as its people, with various regional styles and instruments. Traditional Persian music, characterized by soulful melodies and intricate rhythms, has a mesmerizing effect on listeners. The santur, tar, and ney are just a few of the instruments that contribute to the enchanting soundscape of Iranian music.

Iranian traditions are deeply rooted in the country's history and religious beliefs. Nowruz, the Persian New Year, is celebrated with joy and enthusiasm, marking the arrival of spring and the renewal of nature. Traditional dances, such as the lively and energetic "bandari," showcase the vibrant spirit of Iranian culture.

In conclusion, Iran's cultural heritage is a tapestry woven with art, literature, music, and traditions that have left an indelible mark on the world. Exploring the richness of Iran's cultural heritage is like embarking on a journey through time, where each step reveals new wonders and deepens our understanding of the human experience.

Iran's Geographic Features

Iran is a country with diverse geographical features that contribute to its unique landscape and natural beauty. From towering mountains to vast deserts and picturesque coastlines, Iran offers a wide range of stunning landscapes for visitors to explore and enjoy.

One of the prominent geographic features of Iran is its majestic mountains. The country is home to numerous mountain ranges, including the Alborz Mountains in the north and the Zagros Mountains in the west. Mount Damavand, located in the Alborz Mountains, is the highest peak in Iran and a popular destination for hiking and mountaineering enthusiasts. Its snow-capped summit and breathtaking views attract adventurers from around the world.

In addition to mountains, Iran also boasts expansive deserts that stretch across its central and southeastern regions. The Dasht-e Kavir and Dasht-e Lut deserts are among the most notable deserts in the country. These vast and arid landscapes offer a unique experience for desert lovers, with their mesmerizing sand dunes and extreme temperatures.

Furthermore, Iran is blessed with a long coastline along the Caspian Sea in the north and the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south. The Caspian Sea coastline is known for its beautiful sandy beaches and lush green forests, providing a tranquil escape for beachgoers and nature enthusiasts. On the other hand, the southern coastlines offer stunning views of the Persian Gulf, with its crystal-clear waters and vibrant marine life.

Overall, Iran's geographical features, including its mountains, deserts, and coastlines, make it a truly captivating destination for nature lovers and adventure seekers. Whether you are looking to conquer towering peaks, explore vast deserts, or relax on pristine beaches, Iran offers a diverse range of landscapes that will leave you in awe of its natural beauty.

Mount Damavand

Mount Damavand is a majestic mountain located in Iran, standing as the highest peak in the country. It is a popular destination for hiking and mountaineering enthusiasts, offering breathtaking views and exciting challenges. Rising to an impressive height of 5,610 meters (18,406 feet), Mount Damavand is a true natural wonder.

With its snow-capped summit and rugged terrain, Mount Damavand attracts adventurers from around the world. The mountain is known for its diverse landscapes, ranging from rocky slopes to lush alpine meadows. Hikers and climbers can experience the thrill of conquering its steep trails and reaching the summit, where they are rewarded with panoramic views of the surrounding valleys and peaks.

Mount Damavand holds a significant place in Persian mythology and literature. It is often mentioned in ancient Persian texts and is considered a symbol of national pride. The mountain's beauty and grandeur have inspired poets, artists, and writers throughout history.

For those planning to explore Mount Damavand, it is important to be well-prepared. The mountain's high altitude and challenging weather conditions require proper equipment and physical fitness. Hikers and climbers should consider acclimatization and seek guidance from experienced guides or local mountaineering associations.

Visitors to Mount Damavand can also enjoy the surrounding natural beauty, including hot springs and picturesque valleys. The mountain offers a unique opportunity to experience the stunning landscapes of Iran and immerse oneself in its rich cultural heritage.

In conclusion, Mount Damavand is a must-visit destination for hiking and mountaineering enthusiasts seeking adventure and natural beauty. Its towering presence and captivating landscapes make it an unforgettable experience for those who dare to conquer its peaks.


Persepolis, also known as Takht-e Jamshid, is an awe-inspiring ancient city located in the Fars Province of Iran. This historical site holds immense significance as it was once the ceremonial capital of the mighty Achaemenid Empire, which ruled over a vast territory from 550 to 330 BCE.

Visiting Persepolis is like stepping back in time and witnessing the grandeur and opulence of an ancient civilization. The site is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is renowned for its well-preserved ruins that showcase the architectural brilliance and artistic mastery of the Achaemenid Empire.

As you explore Persepolis, you will be captivated by the intricately carved stone reliefs that adorn the walls and depict scenes of ceremonial processions, battles, and offerings to the gods. These reliefs provide valuable insights into the customs, beliefs, and achievements of the Achaemenid civilization.

One of the most iconic structures in Persepolis is the grand staircase, known as the Apadana. This magnificent staircase was used for ceremonial purposes and was adorned with impressive columns and statues. The Apadana was the focal point of the city and served as a testament to the power and grandeur of the Achaemenid Empire.

In addition to the Apadana, Persepolis is home to other notable structures such as the Throne Hall, the Gate of All Nations, and the Treasury. Each of these structures reflects the architectural brilliance and artistic prowess of the Achaemenid Empire.

Visiting Persepolis is not only a journey through history but also an opportunity to marvel at the achievements of an ancient civilization. The site's significance and grandeur make it a must-visit destination for history enthusiasts, archaeology lovers, and anyone seeking a deeper understanding of Iran's rich cultural heritage.

Economy of Iran

The economy of Iran is a complex and diverse system that plays a crucial role in the country's development and global standing. Iran is known for its rich oil reserves, which have been a major driver of its economy for many years. The oil industry accounts for a significant portion of Iran's GDP and government revenue, making it a vital sector in the country's economic landscape.

In addition to oil, Iran has a diverse range of industries that contribute to its economy. These include manufacturing, agriculture, mining, and services. The manufacturing sector encompasses various industries, such as automotive, petrochemicals, textiles, and steel production. Agriculture plays a significant role in Iran's economy, with the country being a major producer of wheat, rice, fruits, and vegetables.

However, Iran's economy has faced challenges in recent years due to international sanctions imposed on the country. These sanctions have had a significant impact on Iran's economic development, restricting its access to global markets and hindering foreign investment. As a result, the country has had to find alternative ways to sustain its economy and diversify its industries.

Despite the challenges, Iran has been making efforts to strengthen its non-oil sectors and attract foreign investment. The government has implemented economic reforms to improve the business environment and encourage entrepreneurship. Iran has also been exploring new trade partnerships and diversifying its export markets to reduce its reliance on oil revenue.

Overall, gaining insights into Iran's economy provides a deeper understanding of the country's economic landscape, its major industries, and the challenges it faces due to international sanctions. By diversifying its economy and attracting foreign investment, Iran aims to build a more resilient and sustainable economic future.

Political System of Iran

The political system of Iran is a unique blend of theocratic and democratic elements. It is an Islamic Republic, with the Supreme Leader serving as the highest authority in the country. The political structure consists of three branches: the executive, legislative, and judicial.

The Supreme Leader holds significant power and influence in Iran's political system. They are appointed for life by the Assembly of Experts, a body of Islamic scholars elected by the people. The Supreme Leader has the final say in all major decisions and policies, including matters related to defense, foreign policy, and national security.

The executive branch is headed by the President, who is elected by the people for a four-year term. The President is responsible for implementing policies, managing the economy, and representing Iran on the international stage. The President appoints ministers and other high-ranking officials to assist in governing the country.

The legislative branch is composed of the Islamic Consultative Assembly, also known as the Parliament. The Parliament consists of 290 members who are elected by the people every four years. It has the power to pass laws, approve the national budget, and oversee the actions of the executive branch. The Parliament plays a crucial role in shaping Iran's domestic and foreign policies.

The judicial branch is independent of the executive and legislative branches. It is responsible for interpreting the laws and ensuring their enforcement. The Supreme Court is the highest judicial authority in Iran, and it oversees the lower courts throughout the country.

The relationship between the government and religious authorities in Iran is complex. The Islamic principles and teachings heavily influence the governance of the country. The religious authorities, including the clerics, play a significant role in shaping policies and decision-making processes. They provide guidance and advice to the government based on their interpretation of Islamic law.

In conclusion, understanding the political system of Iran requires an appreciation of its unique blend of theocratic and democratic elements. The Supreme Leader holds ultimate authority, while the President, Parliament, and judiciary play crucial roles in governing the country. The influence of religious authorities and adherence to Islamic principles shape Iran's policies and decision-making processes.

The Supreme Leader

The Supreme Leader holds the highest position of authority in Iran's political system. This role was established after the Islamic Revolution in 1979, with the aim of ensuring the country's adherence to Islamic principles and safeguarding the revolution's ideals. The Supreme Leader is appointed by the Assembly of Experts, a body of clerics elected by the people, and serves as the highest-ranking political and religious figure in Iran.

One of the key responsibilities of the Supreme Leader is to shape the country's policies and decision-making processes. They have the power to set the overall direction of the government and influence major policy decisions. The Supreme Leader's guidance and directives are considered binding for all branches of government, including the executive, legislative, and judicial branches.

The Supreme Leader also plays a crucial role in Iran's foreign policy. They have the authority to make decisions on matters of national importance, including international relations, defense, and security. Their decisions and statements on these matters carry significant weight and are followed closely by both domestic and international observers.

Furthermore, the Supreme Leader acts as a spiritual and moral leader for the Iranian people. They provide guidance on religious matters and interpret Islamic teachings, shaping the country's religious and cultural landscape. Their influence extends beyond politics and governance, as they are seen as a symbol of unity and continuity in Iran.

It is important to note that the Supreme Leader's position is not subject to popular vote or term limits. This has led to debates about the concentration of power and the lack of accountability in Iran's political system. However, supporters argue that the Supreme Leader provides stability and continuity in a complex and rapidly changing world.

In conclusion, the Supreme Leader holds a central position in Iran's political system, with the authority to shape the country's policies and decision-making processes. Their role extends beyond politics, as they also serve as a spiritual and moral leader for the Iranian people.

Government and Religious Authorities

The relationship between the government and religious authorities in Iran is complex and deeply intertwined. Iran is an Islamic Republic, which means that Islamic principles play a significant role in the governance of the country. The Iranian government operates under the guidance of Islamic law, with religious authorities exerting influence over political decisions.

In Iran, the Supreme Leader holds the highest authority and is responsible for interpreting and implementing Islamic principles in the country's governance. The Supreme Leader is appointed by the Assembly of Experts, a body of religious scholars elected by the people. This position holds immense power and influence, shaping the direction of the government and its policies.

The government of Iran consists of various branches, including the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. The President is the head of the executive branch and is elected by the people. However, the Supreme Leader has the final say in matters of national importance, and his approval is required for major decisions.

Religious authorities, particularly the clergy, hold significant influence in Iran. The clergy play a crucial role in shaping public opinion and guiding the government's policies. They have a strong presence in various institutions, including the Guardian Council, which is responsible for ensuring that legislation aligns with Islamic principles.

Islamic principles heavily influence the legal system in Iran. Sharia law is the basis for the country's legal framework, and religious authorities play a role in interpreting and implementing these laws. This influence extends to areas such as family law, criminal justice, and social regulations.

The relationship between the government and religious authorities in Iran is a unique and complex one. It is characterized by a balance of power, with the government striving to maintain its authority while also respecting the influence of religious leaders. This dynamic has shaped Iran's political landscape and continues to shape its governance.

Frequently Asked Questions

A: The official language of Iran is Persian, also known as Farsi.

A: The currency used in Iran is the Iranian Rial (IRR).

A: Yes, most visitors to Iran need a visa. It is recommended to check with the Iranian embassy or consulate in your country for specific visa requirements.

A: Iran is generally a safe country to visit. However, it is always advisable to exercise caution and follow any travel advisories issued by your government.

A: Iran is home to numerous fascinating attractions, including the ancient city of Persepolis, the stunning Nasir al-Mulk Mosque, the vibrant bazaars of Tehran, and the beautiful gardens of Shiraz.

A: No, alcohol consumption is prohibited in Iran due to religious laws.

A: In Iran, it is important to dress modestly, especially for women. This means covering your hair with a headscarf, wearing loose-fitting clothing that covers your arms and legs, and avoiding revealing attire.

A: Iran experiences a variety of climates due to its diverse geography. Generally, the country has hot summers and cold winters, but it's always a good idea to check the specific weather conditions for the region you plan to visit.

A: Iranian cuisine is known for its rich flavors and use of fresh ingredients. Some popular dishes include kebabs, rice pilaf, ghormeh sabzi (herb stew), and tahdig (crispy rice).

A: Due to international sanctions, most foreign credit and debit cards are not accepted in Iran. It is advisable to carry sufficient cash in the local currency for your expenses.

  • Q: What is the official language of Iran?
  • Q: What is the currency used in Iran?
  • Q: Do I need a visa to visit Iran?
  • Q: Is it safe to travel to Iran?
  • Q: What are some popular tourist attractions in Iran?
  • Q: Can I drink alcohol in Iran?
  • Q: What is the dress code for visitors in Iran?
  • Q: What is the weather like in Iran?
  • Q: What are some traditional Iranian dishes?
  • Q: Can I use my credit cards in Iran?
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